PROMOTING PEACE AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA
"From Kampala to Cape Town, from Dakar to Dar-Es-Salaam,
Africans are being stirred by new hopes for democracy and peace and prosperity.
Challenges remain, but they must be to all of you a call to action, not a
cause for despair. You must draw strength from the past and energy from the
promise of a new future."
March 23, 1998
President Clinton has made ending conflict and cultivating democracy in Africa
a central focus of his foreign policy, as demonstrated in his historic trip
to the continent in 1998. He has strongly supported the growing trend towards
democracy in Africa, working directly with African institutions to resolve Africa's
conflicts and consolidate its peaceful transitions. Promoting democracy and
stability in Africa means building the capacity of the institutions needed to
promote justice, foster internal trade, enhance regional cooperation, and consolidate
A RECORD OF ACCOMPLISHMENT
Making and Keeping Peace
- Successfully negotiated, in close cooperation with the Organization of
African Unity (OAU), a final peace agreement between Eritrea and Ethiopia
that was signed in Algiers on December 12, 2000. The agreement ended what
was the largest conventional war on earth, and built upon the joint U.S.-OAU
negotiation of a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement signed in Algiers on June
- Announced, in Nigeria in August 2000, a new U.S. program to train and equip
seven West African battalions for peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone
(this was President Clinton's second trip to Africa.) Increased U.S. assistance
to Nigeria's democratic transition from $7 million at the outset of the transition
to $170 million by the end of the Administration. In announcing new funding
to combat infectious diseases, promote education and bridge the global digital
divide, President Clinton put into practice the commitment made by G-8 leaders
in July 2000 to tackle these development challenges.
- Supported mediation efforts in Burundi led by former Tanzanian President
Julius Nyerere and then by former South African President Nelson Mandela,
including through a live videoconference between Presidents Clinton and Mandela
during the February, 2000 mediation round. President Clinton also joined former
South African President Nelson Mandela in Arusha, Tanzania, for a Burundi
Peace Conference, which led to the signing of a framework peace agreement
by the nineteen parties to the peace talks.
- On his trip to Africa in March of 1998 -- the most extensive to the continent
of any American President in history -- President Clinton visited Ghana, Uganda,
Rwanda, South Africa, Botswana and Senegal. In Uganda with Ugandan President
Museveni, President Clinton co-convened a Heads of State Summit which included
several other heads of state: Presidents Moi (Kenya), Mkapa (Tanzania), Bizimungu
(Rwanda), and Kabila (Congo), and Prime Minister Meles of Ethiopia. Also present
were the Secretary General of the Organization for African Unity (OAU) and
a representative of the OAU Chairman. At the summit, President Clinton announced
the formation of an International Coalition Against Genocide, and the Great
Lakes Justice Initiative, which supports efforts in the Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi to build the institutions needed to end to
the culture of impunity. This followed the creation of a new Early Warning
System to alert the international community to future abuses.
- Provided over $100 million to assist the Economic Community of West African
States peacekeeping operation, also known as ECOMOG, in support of regional
peacekeeping and humanitarian relief efforts in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
- Launched the Africa Crisis Response Initiative, which has since 1996, trained
more than 6,000 peacekeepers from six African countries, to respond quickly
and effectively to humanitarian and peacekeeping challenges.
- Established the African Center for Strategic Studies in Arlington, Virginia,
to engage senior African leadership in a program of civil-military relations,
defense resource management and national security decision-making.
- Provided an additional $8 million to the OAU to support its new conflict
- Worked with African regional leaders to support a cease-fire agreement
in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; invited all state signatories to
New York for a special session of the Security Council; and provided direct
assistance to the region's Joint Military Commission and to the internal Congolese
dialogue led by former Botswanan President Masire.
- Formed a Bilateral Consultative Commission with Angola to work jointly
on issues of common concern, including democracy, human rights, regional security
and the civil war in Angola.
- Played a leading role in ongoing international efforts to halt the trade
in "conflict diamonds" used by insurgent groups to fuel conflicts
across the continent.
- Raised the international profile of HIV/AIDS and committed the United States
to providing over $400 million to combat the disease in 2001.
- Supported democratic elections across Africa, and provided assistance to
development of the judiciary, legal systems, media and civil society organizations
in over 20 countries.
- Provided on average $120 million per year (during the last eight years)
in support of democracy programs to build grassroots, civil institutions and
government capacity for democracy, human rights, good governance and conflict
resolution across the continent, in addition to other development assistance
aimed at increasing production and improving health care and education.
- Created the President's Education for Development and Democracy Initiative,
which furthers Africa's integration into the global community by improving
the quality of education by: updating available technology, supporting girls'
and women's education and linking African private and public schools as well
as African and American educational institutions. The Initiative operates
in 32 countries, with the support of the U.S. private sector and other organizations
in 29 American states.
- Supported the post-apartheid political and economic transition in South
Africa, through the Vice President's Binational Commission; developed a comprehensive
program to support the democratic transition in Nigeria, including through
the Joint Economic Partnership Committee.
- Provided advice and technical assistance to African labor ministries to
promote core labor standards and eliminate abusive child labor.
- Promoted education and technology, helped farmers to manage their natural
resources and increase production, and educated those most at risk to HIV/AIDS,
among other tasks, through 2,300 Peace Corps volunteers.
- Supported Africa's capacity to address collective security, regional conflicts
and peacekeeping, including through support to growing regional institutions
-- the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Economic Community Of
West African States (ECOWAS), East African Community (EAC) and Intergovernmental
Authority on Development (IGAD).
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