T H E   W H I T E   H O U S E

ADVANCING THE GLOBAL ARMS CONTROL AGENDA

Text Only Help Site Map

ADVANCING THE GLOBAL ARMS CONTROL AGENDA

 

"The objective is to reduce the threat of nuclear war to the world and to reduce the threat of other weapons of mass destruction. There is still no more significant obligation I have to future generations."

President Clinton
Press Conference
April 4, 1995

To protect against new threats and reduce old ones, the Clinton Administration actively pursued an aggressive approach to arms control. This includes reducing Russia's nuclear forces through the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START I, II and III); adapting the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty to allow for the possible deployment of a limited National Missile Defense (NMD) to protect against the emerging threat from states such as North Korea, Iran and Iraq; adapting the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty to enhance military predictability and stability in Europe; reinforcing and strengthening other existing multilateral treaties and regimes -- Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) -- to reinforce existing norms against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems and advanced conventional weapons and related sensitive technology; and negotiation and entry into force of new multilateral regimes -- Fissile Materials Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) -- to constrain the development of nuclear capabilities globally.

A RECORD OF ACCOMPLISHMENT

  • START: START I has entered into force, and START II has been ratified by the United States Senate and the Russian Duma. Following entry into force, START II, in combination with START I, will eliminate bombers and missiles that carried over 14,000 Russian and American nuclear warheads. The United States and Russia have also agreed on a framework for START III, which when implemented will cut U.S. and Russian nuclear forces by 80% from their Cold War height, and have intensified discussions on this important agreement.
  • Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR): CTR has succeeded in the transfer of all nuclear weapons from Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus to Russia; the deactivation of 1,700 nuclear warheads; destruction of 365 ICBMs and 30 SLBMs; elimination of 343 ICBM silos and 136 SLBM launchers; and elimination of 49 heavy bombers. This work is continuing. CTR has also strengthened security at all Russian nuclear weapons storage sites to protect nuclear weapons and materials from theft or diversion.
  • ABM: The United States and Russia began discussions relating to proposals for modifying the ABM Treaty to accommodate a limited NMD deployment. They already had agreed in 1997 to establish an agreed demarcation between strategic and Theater Missile Defense (TMD) systems that will allow for the deployment of advanced TMD, and to update the ABM Treaty to reflect the break-up of the Soviet Union.
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT): U.S. diplomacy played a critical role in securing the unconditional and indefinite extension by consensus of the NPT the cornerstone of U.S. efforts to control nuclear proliferation.
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): President Clinton led the international effort to conclude the CTBT and was the first world leader to sign this historic agreement. The Treaty has now been signed by 163 countries and ratified by 60.
  • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC): The United States ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1997. To date, 126 countries, including a majority of countries of CW proliferation concern, have joined the CWC, which entered into force in April 1997. These countries are now subject to the Convention's declaration and inspection provisions.
  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR): To help combat the proliferation of ballistic missiles, the United States has achieved stronger guidelines and expanded membership in the MTCR.
  • Detargeting Missiles: The United States has agreed with both Russia and China to detarget strategic missiles.
  • Weapon-Free Zones: The United States signed the relevant Protocols to both the South Pacific and African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaties.
  • Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE): The United States and its Allies led the negotiations to adapt the CFE Treaty to the current European security environment, culminating in signature of an Adaptation Agreement in 1999.
  • Shared Early Warning: The United States and Russia have agreed to establish a Joint Center in Moscow for the exchange of information derived from each side's missile launch warning systems on the launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles. They have also tentatively agreed to a Pre-launch notification regime that will minimize the consequences of a false missile attack warning.

TIMELINE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT

December 16, 2000

Secretary Albright and Russian Foreign Minister Ivanov sign the U.S.-Russia Pre-Launch Notification Agreement in Brussels.

September 6, 2000

President Clinton and President Putin sign a Joint Statement of a Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative and agree on an Implementation Plan in New York.

July 21, 2000

President Clinton and President Putin issue a Joint Statement Concerning Cooperation on Strategic Stability, in Okinawa, Japan.

June 4, 2000

President Clinton and President Putin sign a Joint Statement of Principles of Strategic Stability in Moscow; also sign agreement to establish a Joint Center to exchange early warning data of missile launches.

March 2000

President Clinton appoints General Shalikashvili as Special Advisor for CTBT to conduct a comprehensive review of issues related to ratification. Receives final report in January 2001.

October 6, 1999

President Clinton invites Nobel laureates, former Senator John Glenn, and other dignitaries in support of CTBT ratification to the White House to express support.

June 20, 1999

In Cologne, Germany, President Clinton and President Yeltsin of Russia agree to begin discussions on START III and the ABM Treaty.

May 16, 1998

During his weekly radio address, President Clinton proclaims that India is on the "wrong side of history" in conducting nuclear tests.

January 27, 1998

During the State of the Union Address, President Clinton announces the support of four former Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Generals John Shalikashvili, Colin Powell and David Jones and Admiral William Crowe for Senate approval of CTBT.

September 26, 1997

Consistent with the 1997 Helsinki Joint Statements, the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan reach agreements on establishing an agreed demarcation between strategic and theater missile defense systems and updating the ABM Treaty to reflect the break-up of the Soviet Union. The United States and Russia also reach agreement on a Protocol to START II extending dismantling timelines and providing for the early deactivation of systems to be eliminated under START II.

September 22, 1997

President Clinton transmits the CTBT to the Senate for advice and consent.

March 21, 1997

Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree on a framework for START III and agree to accelerate efforts to conclude agreements on ABM demarcation and succession.

September 24, 1996

President Clinton is first world leader to sign CTBT.

April 20, 1996

President Clinton and other G-8 participants in Moscow Nuclear Summit issue a statement on CTBT calling for the conclusion and signing of CTBT by September 1996.

April 11, 1996

The United States signs Protocols of the African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty in Cairo, Egypt.

March 25, 1996

The United States signs Protocols of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, Suva, Fiji.

October 23, 1995

Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree at Hyde Park to work together to succeed in getting a zero yield CTBT in 1996.

August 11, 1995

President Clinton announces that the United States will support a true zero yield CTBT banning any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.

December 5, 1994

Budapest Summit: President Clinton and the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan exchange instruments of ratification on START I, bringing that Treaty into force.

January 14, 1994

Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree to detarget strategic missiles. President Clinton, with President Yeltsin and President Kuchma, signs a Trilateral Statement to assist Russia and Ukraine in resolving the complex questions regarding nuclear weapons located on Ukrainian territory.

July 3, 1993

President Clinton in his weekly radio address announces the conclusion of the Presidential review on nuclear testing and a CTBT and states his intention to extend the U.S. testing moratorium and seek to negotiate a CTBT.

April 23, 1993

A Presidential statement indicates the U.S. intention to begin consultations with Russia, allies and other states on the specific issues related to a CTBT negotiation within the next two months.

April 4, 1993

Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree at the Vancouver summit that negotiations on a multilateral nuclear test ban should commence at an early date and that the two governments would consult with each other accordingly.

REFERENCES

  • Joint Statement by the Presidents of the United States of America and Russian Federation on Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative and Implementation Plan (September 6, 2000).
  • Joint Statement by the Presidents of the United States of America and Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation on Strategic Stability (July 21, 2000).
  • Joint Statement by the Presidents of the United States of America and Russian Federation on Principles of Strategic Stability (June 4, 2000).
  • Memorandum of Agreement between the United States of America and Russian Federation on the Establishment of a Joint Center for the Exchange of Data from Early Warning Systems and Notifications of Missile Launches.
  • Statement on the CTBT by Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright and General John M. Shalikashvili (January 28, 2000).
  • Statement by the President on CTBT (October 13, 1999).
  • Remarks by the President on CTBT (October 6, 1999).
  • Remarks by the President on the 50th Anniversary of the Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (August 9, 1999).
  • Statement by the President on the CTBT (July 20, 1999).
  • Cologne Joint Statement on START and ABM (June 20, 1999).
  • State of the Union Address (January 19, 1999).
  • Statement by the President on CTBT and LTBT Anniversaries (September 24, 1998).
  • Statement by the President on Brazilian Ratification of CTBT and NPT (July 13, 1998).
  • Radio Address by the President to the Nation on India's Nuclear Tests (May 16, 1998).
  • Remarks by Samuel R. Berger, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, to the Annual Washington Forum of Business Executives for National Security (May 5, 1998).
  • Remarks by the President to the Workers and Community of Los Alamos National Laboratory (February 3, 1998).
  • State of the Union Address (January 27, 1998).
  • Transmittal to the Senate of the CTBT (September 22, 1997).
  • CTBT Chronology During The Clinton Administration Fact Sheet (September 22, 1997).
  • CTBT Safeguards Fact Sheet (September 22, 1997).
  • CTBT General Fact Sheet (September 22, 1997).
  • Helsinki Joint Statements on START and ABM (March 21, 1997).
  • Remarks by the President in Address to the 51st General Assembly of the United Nations (September 24, 1996).
  • Arms Control and Nonproliferation: The Clinton Administration Record (September 23, 1996).
  • Remarks by the President on CTBT Upon Departure from Kansas City (September 10, 1996).
  • G-8 Statement on CTBT: Fact Sheet (April 20, 1996).
  • Joint Statement by Participants in the Nuclear Security Summit in Moscow on a CTBT (April 20, 1996).
  • Statement by the Press Secretary: "United States to Sign Protocols of the African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty" (April 11, 1996).
  • Press Briefing by Mike McCurry and Robert Bell, ANWFZ (April 11, 1996).
  • African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty: Fact Sheet (April 11, 1996).
  • Statement by the Press Secretary: U.S., France and UK to Sign Protocols of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (March 22, 1996).
  • Press Briefing by Robert Bell, SPNFZ (March 22, 1996).
  • South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty: Fact Sheet (March 22, 1996).
  • Joint Statement by the Governments of the French Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America on the Signing of the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (March 22, 1996).
  • Statement by the President on the Senate Ratification of the START II Nuclear Arms Reduction Treaty (January 26, 1996).
  • START II Ratification: Background Information (January 26, 1996).
  • START II Ratification: Summary (January 26, 1996).
  • Press Conference by President Clinton and President Yeltsin, Hyde Park, New York (October 23, 1995).
  • Statement by the President on CTBT (August 11, 1995).
  • Press Briefing by Special Assistant to the President for Defense Policy Robert Bell (August 11, 1995).
  • Address by Anthony Lake, National Security Adviser, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC, January 30, 1995 ("A Year of Decision: Arms Control and Non-proliferation in 1995").
  • Remarks by the President at the Signing of Denuclearization Agreements, Budapest, Hungary (December 5, 1994).
  • Background Briefing by Senior Administration Officials, Budapest, Hungary (December 5, 1994).
  • START I Entry Into Force and Security Assurances: Fact Sheet (December 5, 1994).
  • Moscow Declaration (Detargeting) (January 14, 1994).
  • Statement by the Press Secretary on Detargeting (January 14, 1994).
  • Trilateral Statement by the Presidents of the United States, Russia and Ukraine (January 14, 1994).
  • Radio address by the President to the Nation (July 3, 1993).
  • Statement by the President on Advancing U.S. Relations with Russia and New Independent States (April 23, 1993).
  • Vancouver Summit Statement (April 4, 1993).


President and First Lady | Vice President and Mrs. Gore
Record of Progress | The Briefing Room
Gateway to Government | Contacting the White House
White House for Kids | White House History
White House Tours | Help | Text Only

Privacy Statement