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Targets and Responsibilities [USGS]

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To accomplish the goals of the NEP, the NESW developed a series of targets, together with agency responsibility. These specific actions will be the measure of the NEP's success. An expanded description of these targets is contained in Appendix C. Assignment of agency responsibility is made in accordance with Public Law 95-124, as amended, or, where targets fall outside the scope of Public Law 95-124, to the federal agency whose current programmatic activities best align with the target. In most cases the conduct of the research and outreach required to achieve these targets and produce the corresponding products involves the coordinated efforts of several agencies and requires working partnerships with State and local officials, volunteer professional groups, and other interested parties.

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1. Provide leadership and coordination for federal earthquake research

The objectives are to integrate federal earthquake-related program and budget planning; develop a balanced, prioritized and integrated national research and implementation agenda; facilitate cooperation and information exchange among all interested parties, domestic and international; advocate policies and practices and recommend legislation as appropriate; and conduct periodic performance assessments. Responsibility for meeting this goal lies with all program agencies as well as with the interagency Program Office to be established as part of the NEP.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Work with the National Science and Technology Council to establish a leadership mechanism to assure implementation of the Strategy. The mechanism shall report every two years to the President and to the Congress. All Program Agencies
2. Integrate federal earthquake-related planning into the new mechanism over a five year period beginning in Fiscal Year 1996. All Program Agencies
3. Develop a balanced national prioritized research and mitigation agenda, confirmed or adjusted on a regular basis, incorporating a broad-based assessment of user needs that includes the needs of agencies to support special or unique missions. All Program Agencies
4. Facilitate cooperation and leverage across all agencies and groups with programmatic interests in earthquake loss reduction, including, but not limited to federal, state, local, private, voluntary, and public utility groups. All Program Agencies
5. Develop an overall nationwide strategic plan to integrate and coordinate existing but currently separate research and mitigation programs into a unified, needs-driven, goal-oriented program consistent with the National Earthquake Strategy goals. All Program Agencies
6. Advocate policies and practices nationwide and recommend legislation as appropriate. All Program Agencies
7. Conduct a biennial performance assessment and report of coordination and mitigation activities under the Program. This report shall include accomplishments towards achieving the goals and recommendations for improving the Strategy. All Program Agencies
8. Provide a focal point for federal international collaborative programs in research on earthquake loss reduction and in technology transfer for improved earthquake hazard mitigation. All Program Agencies

2. Continue and expand technology transfer and outreach

Developing and sustaining an awareness of risk and risk reduction techniques and technology is a continuing challenge. The Strategy includes development of credible earthquake planning scenarios; assessment of the costs and benefits of alternative mitigation strategies for new and existing construction; targeted training programs and development and dissemination of tools for design professionals; support of public and private consortia with interests in this area; making research more effectively available to insurance regulators and the insurance industry; and a more systematic approach to communicating the nation's achievements in earthquake hazard reduction.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Develop credible earthquake scenarios including vulnerabilities and loss estimates which are sensitive to emotional and political issues, using GIS technology. FEMA USGS NSF NIST, HHS, NCS, DVA, NOAA
2. Develop assessments of the costs and benefits of various mitigation strategies for new and existing construction. All Program Agencies
3. Conduct targeted training and education programs. All Program Agencies
4. Encourage and assist regional consortia. All Program Agencies
5. Embrace and support voluntary mitigation. All Program Agencies
6. Communicate achievements, progress, and successes of the National Earthquake loss reduction Program and its member agencies and alliances. All Program Agencies
7. Encourage and assist insurance regulators and the insurance industry through publishing regular reports and presenting updates in information and methodology at insurance fora. FEMA NIST Treasury HHS, USGS, HUD, NSF, DOE, DVA, DOT
8. Develop and disseminate tools for design professionals that incorporate state-of-the-art information on mitigation strategies and methods. NIST NSF USGS

3. Improve engineering of the built environment

While in recent times the United States has built an enviable record in terms of the comparatively small number of lives lost in earthquakes, the cost of damage to buildings and infrastructure is still unacceptably high. Future research will continue to develop concepts and criteria to permit the continued functioning of buildings and lifelines after an earthquake and develop effective and economical methods for evaluating and retrofitting existing seismically hazardous structures. Work will also examine wind effects, which have similarly destructive effects on the built environment, to improve building standards and practices.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Develop improved analytical techniques for dynamic, non-linear response of complex, unconventional materials, structures, and lifelines. NIST NSF FEMA, DOE, DOD, USGS, HUD, EPA, DOT
2. Develop new and innovative systems of construction that are economical yet inherently earthquake resistant. NIST NSF FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT
3. Develop performance-based design concepts and criteria for buildings and lifeline systems. NIST NSF FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT
4. Understand seismic behavior of non-building structures and lifeline systems. NIST NSF FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, USGS, DOT
5. Develop effective and economical methods to evaluate and retrofit existing seismically hazardous structures. NSF, NIST FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT
6. Develop experimental engineering research capability and conduct verification and proof-of-principle projects. NSF, NIST FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT

4 . Improve data for construction standards and codes

Efforts will focus on developing and making available to code-writing bodies materials to improve standards for construction of new buildings and lifelines, and rehabilitation standards for rehabilitating existing buildings and other structures. Concurrently, efforts will be undertaken to develop multihazard (wind, earthquake, tsunami) standards and to develop improved capabilities for the analysis and testing of structures and lifelines.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Develop and make available resource documents for use by code writing bodies, state insurance offices, and insurance firms on improved functionality-preserving seismic design criteria for new buildings and other structures, including cost estimates. NIST NSF FEMA DOE, DOD, EPA, DOT, DVA, USGS, NCS, HUD, HHS, OMB, EPA
2. Develop and make available resource documents for use by code writing bodies, insurance companies, and regulators on performance-based seismic design standards for lifelines. NIST NSF FEMA USGS, DOE, NCS, DOD, EPA, DOT, HHS, DVA, HUD
3. By the year 2005, develop and make available resource documents for use by code writing bodies, insurance companies, and regulators on rehabilitation standards for existing buildings. FEMA NIST NSF FEMA, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, DVA, DOE, HUD
4. By the year 2000, introduce multi-hazard standards. FEMA NIST NSF USGS, FEMA, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, DVA, HUD, DOE
5. Develop improved capabilities for analysis and testing of structures, including lifelines. NSF, NIST FEMA, DOD, DOE, DOT, HUD, DVA, USGS
6. Develop means to mitigate tsunami effects by incorporating readings from deep-water pressure sensors to improve early tsunami warning systems. NOAA USGS FEMA, NIST, NSF, USGS, DOT, HHS, DOD, DVA

5. Continue development of seismic hazard and risk assessment tools

There is an urgent need to develop and provide immediately useful information to planners and decision makers. Research will develop improved methods for estimating losses from potential earthquakes and quantifying the risk for high-hazard communities. This effort will produce large- and small-scale maps that depict the seismic hazards, accessible through geographic information system data bases. Work will continue to improve understanding of basic seismic forces, improve the quality and quantity of data recorded in actual events, and advance forecasting techniques and technologies for both earthquakes and resulting tsunamis.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Improve loss estimation methodology. Develop earthquake scenarios linking building types and lifelines with the effects of strong shaking and ground failure to provide better estimates of life losses, injure, public health impact, property losses, and indirect economic effects. USGS NIST, GSA, DOT, DOD, DOE, NSF, FEMA, HHS, HUD
2. By the year 1998, develop seismic risk assessment methodology and quantify seismic risk for communities exposed to high seismic hazard. USGS FEMA, NSF, DOE, NOAA, DVA, HUD
3. By the year 2000, provide demonstration seismic hazard microzonation maps for representative sections of selected cities exposed to the highest earthquake hazard. USGS FEMA, NSF, DOE, NOAA, NASA, DVA
4. By the year 2005 provide regional seismic hazard maps, interpretations, and guidelines as the basis for seismic zonation, implementation of earthquake codes, and local land-use decisions. USGS FEMA, NSF, DOE, NASA, NOAA, DVA
5. Improve earthquake hazard assessment and forecasting using historical seismicity and paleoseismicity, and evaluate the role of emerging technologies. USGS NASA NSF, DOE
6. Provide high-quality earthquake recordings and derived basic seismic information to researchers and practitioners on an ongoing basis. USGS NSF, DOE, NASA, NOAA, DOD
7. Understand critical earthquake topics such as plate interaction in subduction zones, blind faults, fold and thrust belts appropriate to geographically diverse areas. USGS NASA, NSF, DOE
8. Improve understanding of strong ground motions, including nonlinear site response, directivity and topographic effects, and foundation instability. USGS NSF NIST, DOE, DOD, DOT, DVA
9. Develop an accessible digital GIS database. USGS FEMA FEMA, NSF, EPA, DOT, NASA, DOD, NOAA, DVA
10. Improve foreknowledge of and response to tsunami hazards. NOAA USGS FEMA NIST, NSF, USGS, DOT, HHS, DVA, DOD

6. Analyze seismic hazard mitigation incentives

Activities in this category will explore and evaluate mechanisms that may encourage the adoption and enforcement of up-to-date model codes and standards, as well as explore socioeconomic factors that impede mitigation and preparedness.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Evaluate mechanisms and advise Congress and relevant Executive Branch offices to achieve adoption and enforcement by the year 2000 of up-to-date model building codes and standards to govern all new building and lifeline design and construction. FEMA NIST, GSA, OMB, NEC, DOD, DOE, HUD
2. Provide guidance and lead by example on specific mitigation measures which may be used in a federal incentive program. FEMA NIST USGS GSA, EPA, HHS, OMB, NEC, NSF, HUD
3. Better understand the socioeconomic barriers to mitigation and preparedness. FEMA OMB, NEC, HUD

7. Develop understanding of the societal and institutional issues related to earthquake hazard mitigation

Since hazard reduction measures are ultimately local actions, the NEP focuses on social factors, including those that facilitate or hinder the adoption of seismic safety measures; social and economic costs and benefits of these measures; social responses to earthquakes; and the practice and techniques of multihazard mitigation and preparedness planning.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Determine the social and economic benefits and costs of various mitigation measures such as codes, land-use planning, insurance, and educational programs for different sectors of society. FEMA NSF USGS HUD, Treasury
2. Identify the social, economic, and political factors that facilitate and hinder the adoption and implementation of seismic safety measures. FEMA NSF USGS HUD
3. Investigate the societal responses to earthquakes, including emergency response systems, and individual, business, and community recovery from such events. FEMA NSF HUD, HHS, USGS
4. Analyze multi-hazard mitigation and preparedness planning. FEMA NSF HUD, HHS, USGS

8. Analyze the medical and public health consequences of earthquakes

Work in this area will include support of epidemiological research, the integration of casualty and medical needs predictions into loss estimation models, improvement in the rapid assessment of earthquake health effects - both short and long term, and associated development of more effective rescue, medical training, and public health programs.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Identify potential strategies to prevent or mitigate the adverse health consequences of earthquakes through epidemiological research. HHS FEMA, NOAA, DVA
2. Integrate predictions of casualties and medical needs into methodologies for estimating earthquake loss. HHS, NSF USGS FEMA NOAA, DVA, NCS, NSF, NIST
3. Develop validated indicators for rapid assessment of the health effects and potential health effects of earthquakes and related health needs in order to determine the most appropriate medical requirements during the critical first few hours after impact. HHS FEMA, NIST, EPA, DVA, DOE, DOD
4. Develop more effective rescue, medical training, and public health programs. HHS FEMA NIST, DOD, DOT, GSA, DVA
5. Develop effective operational procedures for meeting the health needs of people with special requirements such as evacuees from hospitals and nursing homes. HHS FEMA NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD
6. Develop an emergency communications system to ensure effective coordination of medical and health needs at the local, State, and Federal levels. FEMA NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS

9. Continue documentation of earthquakes and their effects

Efforts will focus on standards and specifications for official documentation of earthquakes, the establishment of timelines for the publication of reports, and the conventions for distributing this information.

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Targets Responsibility Other
1. Establish standards and specifications for official documentation of earthquakes by 1996. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
2. Prepare and publish a reconnaissance report, collect ephemeral data, and complete major aspects of a research plan within one year of each major earthquake event. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
3. Prepare and publish an in-depth report within four years of each major earthquake event. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
4. Post information on electronic data base for easy access by any interested party. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS

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Strategy for National Earthquake Loss Reduction

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Privacy Statement

National Earthquake Loss Reduction [USGS]

A Severe National Threat [USGS]

Current Earthquake Program [USGS]

Need for Change [USGS]

A New National Earthquake Strategy [USGS]

Targets and Responsibilities [USGS]

Utilization of New Technologies [USGS]

Implementation [USGS]

The NEP and National Goals [USGS]

International Collaboration [USGS]

Appendix A [USGS]

Appendix B [USGS]

Appendix C [USGS]

Appendix D [USGS]

Abbreviations/Acronyms [USGS]

Executive Summary [USGS]