NATIONAL SECURITY AND GLOBAL STABILITY
Science and Technology Assuring Our Preparedness
and Improving Global Stability
"Our nation's security derives from a combination of diplomatic
leadership, economic vitality and military might. Advances in science
and technology underlie our strengths, promoting stability through
engagement, giving rise to new industries, and ensuring that our Armed
Forces remain the best trained, best equipped, and best prepared in the
As our nation moves into the twenty-first century, we find ourselves
faced with greater opportunities for peace and prosperity as well as new
challenges to our nation's security and to global stability. The
dissolution of a single major military threat has opened new
opportunities for broadening peaceful alliances. It has been replaced,
however, by an environment in which the dangers are more dispersed and
increasingly varied. The accelerating diffusion of information, people,
capital, and technology multiplies the paths to greater global
prosperity and sustainable growth. However, it also raises the risk of
proliferation of advanced weapons, including weapons of mass
destruction, and of terrorist acts against the United States. Although
the advance of all nations in commerce and trade bears hope for
continued economic growth around the globe, increased consumption
combined with demographic pressures from the world's expanding
population aggravate large-scale environmental and resource degradation,
which saps long-term economic strength and undermines political
stability. All of these trends mean a greater interdependence among
nations, in which the achievement of common interests can be more fully
realized, but in which the ripples of negative events can propagate
swiftly across the planet. The strategic development and use of science
and technology strengthens our ability to meet these challenges.
ENSURING THE NATION'S SECURITY
THROUGH SCIENCE AND
Meeting threats to stability and security requires an enduring
commitment to diplomatic engagement, military preparedness, and economic
performance. In each instance, our science and technology investments
and international cooperation play a key role. For over half a century,
scientific discovery and technological innovation have advanced our
military capabilities and economic prosperity, strengthening the United
States' position as the preeminent world leader.
Administration's policy for ensuring our national security and global
stability rests on a central approach: the prevention of conflict
combined with a capability to use force, should it be required. Key to
this approach is a priority on engagement with other nations. Rather
than contain an adversary, as we did the Soviet Union, we now seek to
integrate countries such as Russia, China, and others into a larger
political and economic order, creating a web of relationships -
including scientific and commercial ties - that give each a shared
interest in stability.
importance of a comprehensive strategy regarding our investments in
science and technology, this Administration developed in the Fall of
1995 the first ever
National Security Science and Technology Strategy. This strategy
reflects our conviction that advances in science and technology can play
a vital role in our response to the growing array of challenges we face.
SUSTAINING A STRONG
For decades, possession of superior technology has been a cornerstone of
U.S. military strategy. Technologies such as radar, jet engines, night
vision, the Global Positioning System, smart weapons, and stealth have
changed warfare dramatically. Maintaining this technological edge has
become even more important as the size of U.S. forces decreases and high
technology weapons become more readily available on the world market. In
this new environment, it is imperative that U.S. forces possess
technological superiority to ensure success and minimize casualties
across the broad spectrum of possible engagements. The technological
advantage enjoyed by the United States in Operation Desert Storm, and
still enjoyed today, is a legacy of decades of wise investments in
science and technology. Similarly, our warfighting capabilities ten to
fifteen years from now will be substantially determined by today's
investment in science and technology.
investment in science and technology underlies our ability to succeed in
high priority missions, to minimize casualties, to mobilize all of our
military services swiftly in coordinated action, to act in concert with
other nations to achieve shared security objectives, and especially to
help deter potential adversaries from taking hostile steps that would
make these responses necessary. New technologies are being developed to
strengthen our efforts in counterproliferation, counterterrorism,
peacekeeping, and the stewardship of a safe and reliable nuclear weapons
As the armed
forces prepare to enter the twenty-first century, modernizing
U.S. military hardware is a central goal of our defense budget
planning. Shown here are artists' conceptions of candidate prototypes
for the Joint Strike Fighter. Advanced technologies - materials,
propulsion systems, flight controls, weapon system management and
systems integration - are at the heart of this next generation
fighter and enable its tailored use by the Air Force, Navy, and Marine
Corps, advancing performance and reducing development and operating
CHANGING THE FACE OF WAR
New technologies have dramatically enhanced our ability to both prepare
for and execute military actions. By supporting advances in information
technologies, sensors, and simulation we strengthen our ability to plan
and conduct military operations, quickly design and produce military
systems, and train our forces in more realistic settings. These
technologies are also central to greater battlefield awareness, enabling
our forces to acquire large amounts of information, analyze it quickly,
and communicate it to multiple users simultaneously for coordinated and
precise action. As former Defense Secretary William J. Perry has noted,
these are the technological breakthroughs that are "changing the face of
war and how we prepare for war."
foremost, our defense science and technology program is designed to
respond to the warfighting requirements articulated by the Joint Chiefs
of Staff and to the mission requirements of the military departments.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff's Joint Vision 2010 is the conceptual template that helps the miliof maneuver, strike, protection, and logistics,
new and potentially very powerful operational concepts emerge.
- Dominant Maneuver. The multi-dimensional application of information
and maneuver capabilities to provide coherent operations of air, land,
and sea throughout the breadth, depth, and height of the battle space.
This approach enables U.S. forces to seize the initiative and control
the tempo of the operation to a decisive conclusion.
- Precision Engagement. The capability to accurately locate the enemy,
effectively command and control friendly forces, precisely attack key
enemy forces or capabilities, and accurately assess the level of success.
- Full Dimensional Protection. The ability to protect our forces at
all levels and obtain freedom of action while they deploy, maneuver, and
engage an adversary.
- Focused Logistics. The capability to respond rapidly to crises,
shift warfighting assets between geographic regions, monitor critical
resources en route, and directly deliver tailored logistics at the
required level of operations.
operational concepts interact to create an overall effect of full
spectrum dominance: the capability to dominate an adversary across the
full range of military operations. Full spectrum dominance will be a key
characteristic of U.S. Armed Forces for the twenty-first century.
of Defense has developed a comprehensive strategy and plan for a focused
defense science and technology program that supports both Joint Vision
2010 and the National Security Science and Technology Strategy. The Defense Science and Technology Strategy with its supporting Basic Research Plan, Defense Technology Area Plan, and the Joint
Warfighting Science and Technology Plan detail the Defense Department's
science and technology vision, strategy, plan, and objectives. They are
designed to provide the technologically superior warfighting equipment
needed today while preserving and nurturing the technology base on which
future combat capability is built.
BASIC RESEARCH: THE FOUNDATION OF DEFENSE
The defense science and technology programs involve both long-term
research and near-term applications. By their nature, the end products
of long-term research are often difficult to predict, resulting in
applications not originally envisioned. Only in hindsight are we able to
appreciate all of the military advantages provided by breakthroughs such
as radar, digital computers, semiconductor electronics, lasers, fiber
optics, and highly accurate navigation systems.
The Department of Defense basic research program has for many decades played a central role in developing the technology and educating and training the scientific personnel
needed to maintain superior military capabilities. As a fundamental step
in the process of scientific discovery, basic research can have
considerable impact on the pace of new developments and the operational
capabilities of a broad range of military systems.
basic and applied science and technology by the Army
Research Laboratory have resulted in major contributions to the
development of the M1 tank. Continued research will further enhance
combat capabilities through advances such as high resolution displays,
lighter weight structures, advanced gun propulsion, active
protection systems, smart kinetic energy penetrators, and advanced
the rewards of basic research, therefore, requires sustained and
broad-based investments - a high priority of this Administration.
Additionally, an important part of the Administration's defense basic
research strategy is to more fully exploit the potential of selected
multidisciplinary areas of research that offer significant benefits to
our military operations, including the following.
- Biomimetics to enable the development of novel synthetic materials,
processes, and sensors through advanced understanding and exploitation
of design principles found in nature.
- Nanoscience to achieve innovative enhancements in the properties and
performance of structures, materials, and devices having ultra-small but
controllable features on the nanoscale (i.e., tens of angstroms) level.
- Smart Structures for modeling, predicting, controlling, and
optimizing the dynamic response of complex, multi-element, deformable
structures used in land, sea, and aerospace vehicles and systems.
- Broad Band Communications to provide for the rapid and secure
transmission of large quantities of multimedia information including
speech, data, graphics, and video.
- Intelligent Systems to enable the development of advanced systems
able to sense, analyze, learn, adapt, and function effectively in
changing or hostile environments.
- Compact Power Sources to improve the performance of power sources
through fundamental advances in current technologies (e.g., batteries
and fuel cells) and the identification and exploitation of new concepts.
Research accomplishments in some of these fertile areas have already had a significant impact on technology areas such as advanced structures and new classes of sensitive detectors.
APPLIED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The Administration has designed a strategic approach to applied research
and advanced development to get the most out of our defense science and
technology investment in an increasingly difficult fiscal environment.
The tri-service Defense Technology Area Plan comprehensively describes the investment strategy for critical defense technologies. It identifies the anticipat
on the science and technology investment through nearly 200 Defense Technology Objectives in ten broad technology areas. Each Defense Technology Objective identifies a specific
technology advance that will be developed or demonstrated, the
anticipated date that the technology will be available, and the specific
benefits that should result. These benefits not only include increased
military operational capabilities, but other important areas as well,
including affordability and dual use applications.
NEW WAYS OF DOING BUSINESS
To increase the performance and reduce the costs of new defense
technologies, the Administration has launched initiatives that reflect
new ways of doing business. These new initiatives include policies to
strengthen acquisition reform, promote dual-use-technologies, and
sharpen technology demonstrations.
ACQUISITION REFORM. This initiative removes barriers
that sometimes seperate the defense industry from the commercial
industry. Thus, it ensures that the military can acquire the highest
quality equipment at the lowest cost. For example, acquisition reform
initiatives are significantly reducing the cost of improving the
precision of munitions. In the Joint Direct Attack Munition program,
standard gravity bombs are fitted with guidance kits aided by Global
Positioning System (GPS) receivers, greatly increasing their accuracy.
Changing to a performance-based specification from a military
specification (Milspec) made it possible to use lower-cost commercial
GPS technology in this application, cutting program cost in half.
DUAL-USE TECHNOLOGIES. The Administration's dual-use
technology policy recognizes that our nation can no longer afford to
maintain two distinct industrial bases and therefore allows our armed
forces to exploit the rapid rate of innovtion of commercial industry to
meet defense needs. By taking advantage of the speed of commercial
advances, the Department of Defense can better ensure that it will
develop, field, and sustain superior equipment in a cost-efficient
manner, avoiding the high costs of developing military-specific
components unless they are absolutely necessary.
strategy rests on three pillars: dual-use R&D to exploit the potential
of advanced commercial technologies to meet defense needs; integration
of commercial and military production to enable industry to "dual"; and
insertion of commercial products, processes, and technologies into
defense systems wherever possible. This strategy is designed to improve
access to leading-edge technology and to reduce the cost of advanced
Reinvestment Project (TRP), run by the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency, was the Defense Department's first major
dual-use technology program. The TRP awarded nearly $1 Billion during a
series of competitions held in 1993-1995. Because industry was required
to pay at leasthalf of the cost of every TRP project, the government's
investment leveraged several billion dollars of R&D. TRP-supported
projects promoted the advance of promising dual-use technologies in a
range of critical defense areas, including low-cost night vision,
high-density data storage devices, battlefield casualty treatment,
composite aircraft structures, and detection of chemical/biological
agents. Although no further TRP competitions are planned, the
Department of Defense has created the
Dual-Use Applications Program which uses lessons learned from the
TRP and which is administered by the military services and supports
cost-shared technology development with industry that is targeted to
each of the Services' needs.
In the area of
dual-production, the Defense Department's partnerships are already
helping develop commercial applications for advanced military
technologies as a way to lower costs. For example, several years ago the
Defense Department pursued microwave monolithic integrated circuit
(MIMIC) technology advanced gallium arsenide semiconductors - as a
strictly military development, but the high cost prohibited widespread
use of the devices. Defense now encourages MIMIC contractors to pursue
commercial applications in uses such as collision avoidance systems for
automobiles, satellite communications, and air traffic control signal
processing. By leveraging commercial production, the payoff to defense is
better radar and other systems at a lower cost.
of Defense is pursuing a third dual-use theme - commercial insertion -
through programs such as the new Commercial Operations and Support
Savings Initiative and the Commercial Technology Insertion Program to accelerate the use of specific dual-use technologies
into weapon systems. For example, civilian contractors are working with
Defense Department staff to develop a process for inserting non-military
parts into the
Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System. The broader goal is to develop a
corps of "smart buyers" in the military who have a detailed knowledge of
relevant commercial technologies and an understanding of commercial
markets and buying practices.
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS. A third approach
through which the Administration is increasing the performance and
reducing the costs of new defense technologies is technology
demonstrations. The Administration has developed several mechanisms for
moving innovative concepts and superior technology from the development
laboratory to the field faster and at lower cost than traditional
- Advanced Technology Demonstrations. Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs) seek to demonstrate the maturity and potential of advanced
technologies for enhanced military operational capability or cost
effectiveness. Examples include
Rapid Terrain Visualization - a multi-year effort to integrate
technologies for rapid, high resolution digital terrain data generation,
dissemination, and display, and integration with intelligence data for
battlefield visualization; the Vehicle Mounted Mine
Detector to detect metallic and nonmetallic mines at tactical
speeds; Integrated Biodetection to fabricate, demonstrate, and
integrate point and standoff biodetection technologies into an
integrated battlefield detection system; and many others, all designed
to directly support the Joint Warfighting Capability Objectives established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.
Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs) are designed to
transfer technology rapidly from the developers to the users. They are
user-oriented and represent an integrated effort to assemble and
demonstrate a significant, new, or improved military capability that is
based on mature advanced technologies. As with the ATDs, all of the
ACTDs directly support the Joint Warfighting Capability Objectives
established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- Joint Warfighting Experiments. Joint Warfighting Experiments are conducted as part of joint warfighting exercises. A Joint Warfighting Experiment
is a snapshot in time when prototypes and technologies from ACTDs, ATDs,
and technology-base and advanced-development programs are integrated to
permit the warfighter to judge their potential and gain insight into
future advanced joint warfighting concepts.
COUNTERING PROLIFERATION OF
WEAPONS OF MASS
Throughout the Cold War, the United States faced, in the Soviet Union,
an adversary armed with nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons.
During that period, the ability of each side to absorb an attack by
these weapons and still be capable of responding with a devastating
counterattack ensured that neither superpower used these frightful
weapons against the other. Today, the United States and Russia are
working together to reduce and dismantle the arsenals they built up
during the Cold War. However, we face a continuing challenge as these
types of advanced weaponry threaten to spread to other states and
nonstate actors around the world.
At least 20
countries have or may be developing chemical, biological, or nuclear
weapons. Terrorist groups have become increasingly capable, often
employing lethal, wide-ranging, and sophisticated operating methods and
technical expertise. Rogue regimes are seeking to acquire these weapons
for blackmail, or as an inexpensive counter to the United States'
overwhelming conventional military superiority. Regional rivals may use
them against each other in pursuit of a decisive edge in combat, or in
anticipation of a feared preemptive strike. In short, those who succeed
in acquiring these weapons in the post-Cold War world may not be subject
to the restraints against their use that characterized the U.S.-Soviet
tensions of the Cold War.
Administration is pursuing a broad range of efforts to reduce existing
military threats and stem the spread of weapons of mass destruction and
their missile delivery systems. These efforts include new agreements,
enhanced cooperation, improved safeguards, and new technologies for
monitoring and verification. The United States is expanding its
cooperation with the states of the former Soviet Union to dismantle at
an accelerated pace the massive arsenals left from the Cold War, to
ensure that weapons and weapons materials are secure and accounted for,
to ensure the scientifically sound disposition of these materials, and
to employ former weapons scientists in needed civilian research. Through
cooperation we have also secured agreements from Ukraine, Belarus, and
Kazakhstan to send all the nuclear weapons on their soil to Russia where
they can be safely controlled and dismantled. We have also achieved an
indefinite extension of the
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and have successfully negotiated the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention.
technology are fundamental to successful arms control treaty
verification and nonproliferation. The Administration's strategy for
investing in science and technology to support our nonproliferation and
arms control policies focuses on three critical elements: strengthening
the technical know-how to conduct effective arms restraint; continually
improving detection, monitoring, and verification capabilities; and
promoting science and technology cooperation to advance arms reduction
and nonproliferation goals.
and personal relationships that have been created through science and
technology collaborations also provide an extensive basis that can
contribute to arms reduction and nonproliferation. The international
scientific community, with its strong ties across many borders, can
contribute to an assessment of approaches and can itself act to defuse
problem situations. For example, throughout the Cold War, Western
scientists and scholars worked with their Soviet counterparts to advance
scientific discovery and to build a basis for cooperation in arms
reduction and nonproliferation. At times, the lines of communication
between scientists were the only lines open when political difficulties
constrained formal diplomatic channels. Expanding these professional
scientific ties in the post-Soviet era has sustained the Russian
scientific community and laid the groundwork for unprecedented
cooperation in support of our common nonproliferation goals.
Administration will continue to seek cooperation with the states of the
former Soviet Union to ensure that nuclear materials are safe and
secure, that the production of weapons plutonium is shutdown, and that
stockpiles of nuclear materials are reduced. As President Clinton has
stated, the United States will work with Russia to pursue further arms
reduction including the possibility of direct controls on nuclear
warheads and nuclear materials.
DEFENDING AGAINST TERRORISM
The tragedy of terrorism has come closer and closer to home. The United
States had long been insulated from large-scale acts of terrorism until the terrorist attacks on the U.S. embassy and on U.S. forces in Lebanon in 1983, and the downing of Pan Am flig
ht 103 in 1988, killed hundreds of Americans. With the World Trade Center bombing in 1993 - intended to kill thousands - massive acts of terrorism came to our shores. The chemical attack against Tokyo subway riders in 1995 raised the prospect that weapons
far more devastating than conventional explosives were entering terrorist arsenals. Measures to prevent, minimize, and recover from acts of terrorism - whether via conventional, unconventional, or information attack-are essential, and must be undertaken a
t all levels, from the local to the international.
The Clinton Administration is bringing the full weight of the Federal government to bear against this threat, with science and technology playing a critical role. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, chaired by the Vice President, has highlighted the role advanced technology can play in making flying safer by deploying state-of-the-art explosive
detection and other technologies at our nation's airports. Our intelligence and law enforcement agencies are bolstering their tools to uncover and forestall attacks before they can be carried out, and to identify and successfully prosecute those planning
or conducting them. A full range of diplomatic and military options is available to respond to states or nonstate groups that aid terrorist attacks on the United States.
Countermeasures against new types of weapons are being readied, including developing and deploying means for managing the consequences of a chemical or biological attack - detecting the presence of
chemical and biological agents, protecting public safety personnel, treating victims who have been exposed to such agents, and decontaminating affected environments afterwards. Measures to protect our armed forces overseas against such attacks can bolster
our ability to respond to terrorist attacks at home. For example, the recently created Marine Corps' Chemical and Biological Incident Response Force, the only U.S. force currently capable of performing large-scale consequence management activities in a ch
emical/biological contaminated environment, can be rapidly deployed at foreign or U.S. locations.
We will also counter threats, whether by computer-based attack or more conventional means, from those who would attack our critical infrastructure - the telecom munications, banking, and finance sys
tems; electrical power, gas, and water distribution systems; emergency services; and continuity of government systems upon which our society depends. The President has recently created a
Critical Infrastructure Protection Commission and charged it with recommending a comprehensive national policy and implementation strategy for protecting our infrastructure and assuring its continued operation.
MOBILIZING SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY FOR GLOBAL STABILITY
As one member of a global community, the United States shares with the world common threats and challenges to sustained economic development. Environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, natural disasters, and disease can have major consequences
that threaten every nation. The rapid growth of the world's population, projected to increase by up to one billion each decade, exacerbates many of these dilemmas. History has shown that population pressures can offset economic growth, lead to
unsustainable demands on food, other resources and the environment, and contribute to disorder and mass dislocations. These pressures threaten global stability and security and are likely only to grow more pressing with the passing of time.
Scientific research and monitoring underlie our ability to respond to many of these challenges. Global surveillance and basic biomedical research are key to dealing with emerging and re-emerging inf
ectious diseases. Science and technology can also affect population stabilization through education, planning, reproductive health care, and better methods of contraception; food security through increased agricultural productivity and improved food
preservation, storage, and distribution; resource stewardship through research that strengthens the sustainable management of temperate and tropical forests, and coastal and marine resources; natural disaster reduction through developing and implementing
technologies for both monitoring and mitigation; and the promotion of knowledge about options that support sustainable development. International networks of scientists and engineers provide an important resource in addressing these varied issues.
In addition, science and technology play an essential role in helping societies recover from the devastation and dangers that are left by conflict. For example, new technologies are playing a life-s
aving role in enabling the more effective and efficient removal of landmines that threaten the sustainable development of many fragile societies. The challenge is daunting but the need for solutions is critical.
STRENGTHENING OUR INTERNATIONAL
The Administration's strategy for applying science and technology to
meet these challenges builds upon the strengths of preventive diplomacy,
strategic engagement and international partnerships. Through preventive
diplomacy, the Administration endeavors to resolve problems, reduce
tensions, and defuse conflicts before they become crises. Employing
science and technology to bolster preventive diplomacy adds a new
dimension to our arsenal to promote stability and security. The
President's Committee of
Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has stressed the
importance of this approach, noting that "what is required is a shift in
thinking akin to the change of emphasis in medicine from emergency rooms
and intensive care units to preventive primary care and public health."
strategic engagement and international partnerships, the Administration
strives to provide the framework for promoting sustainable development,
addressing global threats and large-scale problems, and strengthening
the economic ties that underlie global stability. These are instruments
of preventive diplomacy that are made more powerful through science and
technology. For example, the Administration has elevated environmental
issues to a high priority in U.S. foreign policy and is intensifying
strategic international initiatives because it is clear that a global
response is essential to addressing major environmental challenges.
science and technology has been of great value in responding to
international disasters and human tragedies.
Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Rabaul Volcano Observatory personnel
installed volcano-monitoring instruments near the erupting Tavurvur
volcano in Papua New Guinea. Fifty thousand people were successfully
evacuated before the simultaneous eruption of two volcanos. With these
instruments, scientists predicted the eruptions and provided information
about when it was safe to return.
cooperation in science and technology is also a means of more
effectively achieving our national goals. For example, to more
effectively mitigate the impacts of natural disasters, cooperation is
invaluable. Although disasters are somewhat rare locally, they are
common globally. Therefore cooperation yields valuable information and
is a positive sum strategy for all nations. Cooperation can be used to
accelerate the development of new technologies, data, and monitoring
systems; reduce the costs of achieving needed advances or of gathering
needed knowledge; pave the way for trade between U.S. manufacturers and
international users; and mitigate the damage to facilities and
capabilities overseas in which the United States has interests.
FOSTERING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS
The Administration continues to work with other nations to build the
framework through which cooperation in science and technology can
strengthen our ability to stem global threats, foster sustainable
development, and advance areas of mutual interest. The Administration
has promoted the development of platforms for engagement through
bilateral commissions with nations including Russia, China, Ukraine,
South Africa, and Egypt; through priority bilateral science and
technology cooperation with key partners, including Japan and the
European Union; and through multilateral forums such as the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development, Asia
Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and Summit of
Americas. These arrangements facilitate a constant dialogue among
science and technology policymakers, provide a steady framework to
promote and protect U.S. interests abroad, apply science and technology
more aggressively to meet our foreign policy priorities, and advance the
frontiers of knowledge by drawing on a greater range of resources.
Strategic engagement and international partnerships underlie our ability
to incorporate science and technology into our foreign policy goals.
binational commissions and partnerships, the Administration can more
effectively address a range of priorities with our international
partners. One example is the U.S-Russian Commission which, in three
years, has facilitated numerous collaborations in all fields of science
and technology, including a recently established energy efficiency
partnership to promote U.S. technology exports and help Russia reduce
pollution emissions. Working through the Commission, the United States
established a new foundation to support civilian R&D collaboration
between scientists in the United States and scientists in the states of
the former Soviet Union. Another example is the
U.S.-Japan Common Agenda. Since
its inception in 1993, partnerships have been formed and strengthened in
over 24 areas, all of which contribute to sustainable development and the
mitigation of common threats. One example is the enhanced partnership in
earthquake disaster reduction to promote science and technology advances
that will lead to safer communities. In our relationship with China,
there have been over 1,000 official bilateral projects involving the
exchange of over 10,000 people.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum the United States has a
framework for working with the fastest growing economies in the world.
Since President Clinton convened the first meeting of APEC leaders in
1993, United States engagement in this forum has made important strides
in promoting sustainable development. At the first Science and
Technology Ministerial in 1995, Ministers - with U.S. leadership -
agreed to collaborate on challenges in the environment, natural
human health. In 1996, the United States supported a focus on
challenges to human resource development in science and technology in
the APEC region and led in forming the APEC Cleaner Production/Clean
In Africa, the
Administration is working with 21 sub-Saharan nations to extend the
benefits of the Global Information Infrastructure. Through the recently
created Leland Initiative, the U.S. Agency for
International Development is fostering the use of telematic technologies
- in which U.S. firms are world leaders - to overcome barriers to
sustainable development. This initiative will harness the powerful
information and communication tools of the Internet to address
challenges such as disease, literacy, environmental protection, and
private sector development.
Administration has also promoted the use of science and technology by
working closely with various global organizations. We have worked with
Health Organization to successfully eradicate smallpox, and are
working to combat the threat of emerging infectious diseases. The
Administration's policy to fight emerging infectious diseases seeks to
make needed improvements in the international and domestic capabilities
for surveillance, prevention, and response to these growing global
health threats. We are drawing upon provisions of the U.N. Law
of the Sea Convention to gain greater access to marine research data
vital to managing ocean resources and understanding global change. And
we have worked with the U.N. Population Summit in
Cairo to strengthen science and technology support for more effective
bilateral and multilateral organizations, the Administration also is
seeking to strengthen free markets and integrate other nations into a
larger, more open economic order. Studies have shown that economic
linkages with the international community and the world system of trade
enhance the stability of developing nations and nations in transition to
democracy. We pursue these objectives by promoting United States science
and technology cooperation, trade with established trading partners, and
investments in economies in transition.
will continue to work with nongovernmental organizations and industry to
achieve these goals in an effective manner. At our urging, the
multilateral development banks are now placing increased emphasis upon
sustainable development in their funding decisions. This priority
heightens awareness of technological options for more environmentally
sound development. In particular, the Global Environmental Facility
(GEF), established in 1994, will provide a source of financial
assistance to the developing world for climate change, biodiversity, and
THE EVOLVING CHALLENGES|
OF THE FUTURE
technology play an increasingly central role in the Administration's
strategy for sustaining our nation's security and global stability.
Through investments at home, advanced technologies will continue to be
key to ensuring our military advantage. Through strategic engagement
with other nations, collaboration in science and technology will help
stem the flow of weapons of mass destruction, enforce our international
arms treaties, mitigate economic and environmental stresses on societies,
and promote the linkages that will lead us to a stable and sustainable
Administration will build upon this strategy of prevention and
engagement to meet the evolving challenges of the future. Areas that
will receive policy priority include the use of science and
technology in enhancing our capabilities for defense, developing a
cradle-to-grave nuclear materials management system, promoting a more
aggressive strategy for combating terrorism, and strengthening
international partnerships to mitigate global threats and promote
MAINTAINING THE SAFETY AND
OF OUR NUCLEAR WEAPONS
For over 50 years since the United States detonated the world's first
nuclear weapon in the New Mexico desert, weapons designers have relied
first on atmospheric testing, and later on nuclear tests conducted
underground, to verify the performance of nuclear weapons and to develop
new designs. Paramount was the need to ensure that the weapons in the
U.S. nuclear arsenal were reliable (would work as intended in a hostile
war environment) and safe (could not be set off accidentally).
to maintaining the nuclear stockpile ended on September 24, 1996, the
day President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
(CTBT). This treaty, the longest sought, hardest fought prize of the
arms control process, prohibits nuclear weapons testing, thus ending the
development of advanced new types of nuclear weapons. The President
signed the CTBT confident that the nation's nuclear stockpile would
remain safe and reliable without nuclear testing. Indeed, he conditioned
U.S. participation in the treaty on maintaining such confidence. At his
direction, the Department of Energy initiated the
Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) Program, a new approach
to maintaining the safety and reliability of the stockpile. Science has
always been integral to our understanding of nuclear weapons. Without
nuclear testing, stockpile maintenance will rely more than ever on science.
For the past 50
years, the nuclear weapons stockpile has been maintained through a
strategy of surveillance, nuclear and nonnuclear testing, scientific
investigation, and continual replacement of old warheads with new
designs. Today, we are no longer producing new kinds of weapons, and
scientists must capture in other ways the types of information they
formerly gathered through nuclear testing. Scientists and engineers will
use new and enhanced experimental and computational facilities,
including sophisticated computer models, neutron beams, and laser beams
focused on tiny hydrogen pellets to ensure the safety and reliability of
the stockpile. This program will not enable scientists to develop new
kinds of weapons, which is too difficult a task without nuclear testing.
It will allow the President to remain confident in the U.S. nuclear
basis for the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile
rests on a program of surveillance to examine and diagnose aging
phenomena in stockpile weapons and materials; assessment and analysis of
the physical observations through detailed calculations and experiments
to test these observations; and necessary responses to any changes. The
success of the program also depends on our ability to maintain a cadre
of scientists with the expertise and flexibility to address unforeseen
future stockpile issues as they arise.
stockpile ages, scientists must be able to predict with confidence when
a change observed in a stockpile weapon will affect its reliability or
safety. To meet military requirements, the Department of Energy must be
able to refabricate and certify these weapons. Such confidence will be
gained through improved computational capabilities for modeling and
simulation; through investments in specific new experimental
capabilities to benchmark and validate computational models; and by
expanding our most fundamental knowledge of materials at the atomic
level. These elements, together with a small, efficient production
capability, comprise the SBSS Program.
To ensure the
safety and reliability of our nuclear weapons stockpile without
nuclear testing, the Department of Energy's national security
laboratories ( Los Alamos, Sandia, and
will build new scientific and computer facilities. The
National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Livermore will be the world's most
powerful laser and will produce nuclear fusion reactions in small target
pellets. NIF experiments will sustain confidence in the aging stockpile
as well as open up new areas of basic science and inertial fusion. The
target chamber shown here is for Nova, the Livermore laser facility now
in operation. Its fusion targets, about the size of grains of sand, reach
temperatures and pressures comparable to the center of the Sun when
bombarded by Nova's laser.
One of the new
tools of SBSS will be high-performance computing to validate and certify
the safety, reliability, and performance of nuclear weapons in the
absence of nuclear testing. This will require a ten-thousand fold
increase in computing power. Another major SBSS thrust will be the use
of experimental facilities such as the
Los Alamos Neutron Science
Center to probe materials with beams of neutrons, developing a new
understanding of the behavior of materials as they age.
Ignition Facility (NIF) will provide another valuable tool for
scientists. This massive laser will focus energy on tiny experimental
pellets, producing temperatures, pressures, and densities similar to
those occurring during the detonation of a nuclear weapon. This tool
will enable scientists in the weapons program to delve into important
physical phenomenona of importance to nuclear weapons, but in the
laboratory, not through nuclear testing.
Through science-based stockpile stewardship and management, the United
States will ensure that the activities needed to maintain its nuclear
deterrent remain fully compatible with its nonproliferation and arms
control objectives, with the added benefit of advancing this nation's
scientific knowledge base and technological capability.
NEW EYES IN THE SKY
Few applications of defense technology are as revolutionary as the
successful integration of information systems, flight vehicle design and
control, aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, sensors, and computers
represented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs have applications
in a wide range of military missions, including high-risk missions such
as suppressing enemy air defenses and assessing bomb damage, and those
requiring long endurance such as reconnaissance and communications relay.
power. The Administration's goals is to continue advances in
reconnaissance and information technology to support military
operations. A Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flies above the aircraft
carrier USS Carl Vinson in a simulated Navy aerial reconnaissance
For example, the Predator - a medium altitude, long endurance UAV - has
seen operational use in Bosnia while still in the prototype stage. The
submarine and special forces communities recently completed a very
successful demonstration with the Predator, linking submarines into the
larger battlefield command and control system. This demonstration,
conducted with Navy SEALs off San Clemente Island, California in June
1996, had the Navy attack submarine USS CHICAGO take control of a
Predator UAV from a range of about 100 miles while submerged at periscope
depth. In this scenario, a special forces team would conduct its ingress
and egress while the orbiting Predator monitored for hostile forces,
relaying its observations back instantaneously. In effect, the Predator
extended the sub's periscope from 15 feet to 15,000 feet, leading
some in the submarine community to comment that "this is the most
exciting thing that has happened in submarine warfare since the nuclear
MOVING TECHNOLOGIES TO THE FIELD MORE
The Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) program is the
Administration's approach to capturing and harnessing innovation for
military use rapidly and at a reduced cost. ACTDs are desinged to
foster an alliance directly between the technologists and the
operational users, eliminating barriers that can crop up between the
two. Representatives of the forces, including the Joint Staff, the
Joint Requirements Oversight Council, and the Commanders of Unified and
Specified Commands, play a direct role in the selection and management
of the ACTDs.
focused on four principal objectives: (1) to gain an operator's
understanding and evaluation of the military utility of new technology
applications before committing to acquisition; (2) to develop
corresponding concepts of operation and doctrine that make the best use
of the new capability; (3) to provide residual operational capability to
the forces; and (4) to facilitate a more informed acquisition decision.
The intent of
the ACTD process is to provide the user with a mechanism to interact
very early in development. Such participation enables rapid and
cost-effective evaluation and, if warranted, introduction of new
capabilities to operational forces. Examples include the
Counterproliferation-Counterforce ACTD which develops weapon
employment tactics, damage assessment, and collateral effects tools and
integrates them to provide the warfighter a rapid, lethal targeting
methodology against chemical and biological weapons production and
storage facilities with minimal collateral effects; and the
Joint Combat Identification ACTD which will demonstrate a joint,
integrated air-to-ground and ground-to-air combat identification
capability to increase combat effectiveness and reduce the potential for
Other examples of ACTDs include unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missle
defense, mine countermeasures, advanced joint planning, and synthetic
theater of war. Additional demonstrations are planned for combat
identification, airbase/port biological defense, miniature air launched
decoy, semi-automated imagery processing, and others.
COOPERATION TO CONTROL FISSILE
Security for plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) - essential
ingredients of nuclear weapons - is improving in the former Soviet Union
as a result of ongoing cooperation between Russian and American
scientists. With enough of either of these materials in hand, many
nations and even some terrorist groups could potentially make a crude
nuclear weapon. A soda-can sized block of plutonium weighing only a few
kilograms is potentially enough for a nuclear bomb. Thus, nothing is
more vital to United States security than ensuring that these materials
do not fall into the wrong hands.
in the turmoil that has followed the collapse of the Soviet Union,
controls over nuclear materials in some of the states of the former
Soviet Union have weakened considerably. Already, there have been
several seizures of kilogram quantities of weapons-usable materials
stolen from former Soviet nuclear sites.
To address this
urgent security threat, the United States is working closely with the
states of the former Soviet Union to install modern systems that account
for and safeguard nuclear materials that could be used in weapons. These
systems are the products of U.S.-funded R&D over the past 30 years. They
form the basis for a comprehensive plan under which, assuming continued
Russian cooperation and Congressional funding, all of the plutonium and
HEU in the former Soviet Union will be safeguarded by modern security
and accounting systems by the end of the year 2002.
At some sites,
the process is well under way. At the Sosny Research Center near Minsk,
for example, fuel rods containing HEU - easy enough to handle and walk
away with - are used to support reactor operations. The research under
way is largely for nuclear power-related activities. After the Chernobyl
accident and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, civilian research
activities at Sosny were significantly curtailed, leaving the facility
without military-style security. Until recently, there were no
electronic monitors at the gate to detect material being carried out the
door - and there was no accurate accounting of how many fuel rods there
were, so no one could be sure if any were missing.
contributions to U.S. security result from enhancing the
security of nuclear material in the states of the former Soviet Union
through the Cooperative Threat Reduction program (also called the
Nunn-Lugar program). Shown here is the Fresh Fuel Storage Building at
the Sosny Research Center in Minsk, Belarus before and after security
enhancements in October 1996.
Today at this
site, security for the materials is greatly improved. All doors and
windows into buildings containing weapons grade nuclear materials
been sealed or alarmed. The front entry doors to these buildings are now
accessible only through turnstiles equipped with electronically
activated locking mechanisms. In addition, these buildings now have
entry control systems that use secure card systems, personal
identification numbers, and administrative controls. If an intruder or
unauthorized person attempts to enter restricted areas through a fence,
gate or door, an alarm will be triggered and transmitted to the central
alarm station. In short, today it would be impossible to steal these
controlled materials without detection and response.
former Soviet Union, U.S. scientists have been working closely with
their counterparts to make similar security improvements elsewhere. Over
the last two years, this effort has grown from protecting kilograms of
nuclear material at a few isolated sites to protecting tens of tons at
dozens of sites. New regulations and monitoring procedures are also
being established, and the former Soviet states are themselves beginning
to produce the needed equipment. U.S. and former Soviet scientists are
applying the best technologies from each country to solve security
problems that affect us all.
This effort has
received strong bipartisan support. In fact, in 1996, Senators Nunn,
Lugar, and Domenici - a Democrat and two Republicans - sponsored
legislation in this area that won unanimous Senate approval. The new law
significantly increases funding for these programs and supports related
efforts to stop nuclear smuggling, end plutonium production, eliminate
stockpiles of material at risk, and improve our domestic preparedness to
deal with the threat of mass-destruction terrorism. These programs show
how early investment in prevention, applying the tools of science and
technology, can benefit U.S. security and head off much larger costs and
risks in the future.
To meet the growing challenge of terrorist threats, the Administration
is drawing on science and technology resources across the Federal
government. Individual agencies develop counterterrorism technologies in
pursuit of their respective missions, and an interagency body - the
Technical Support Working Group - identifies needs, seeks common
approaches, and coordinates the development of new technologies to
accomplishments have been made within the past two years:
- Advanced bomb-detection technologies are being tested at selected
airports, with additional deployments
recommended by the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and
Security and ordered by the President.
- A Nuclear Material Detection System to detect shielded and
unshielded special nuclear materials has been fielded, in both
stationary and van-portable models, in international airports in the
United States and overseas.
- The first of several working enzymes for use in a decontamination
foam for certain chemical weapons agents has been delivered to the U.S.
Army's Technical Escort Unit, which is available to respond to incidents
of terrorism involving chemical weapons.
- A Chemical/Biological Explosive Ordnance Disposal Suit, developed
jointly with Canada and fielded with the U.S. Army's Technical Escort
Unit, provides blast and contaminant protection to the wearer as well as
a helmet-mounted communications system.
- A Mechanical Car Bomb Extractor, an all-terrain robotic system
integrating a robust cutting system and video camera, allows law
enforcement personnel to gain access remotely to a suspect vehicle and
ascertain its contents. This system is commercially
available and is used by the FBI.
projects under way include research and development of countermeasures
to disable large vehicle (van, panel truck, or tractor-trailer) bombs;
chemical detection and protective equipment for police, fire, and rescue
personnel, and improved forensic tools for DNA and fingerprint recovery.
government is also cooperating with other nations in counterterrorist
technology development to enhance the research efforts of both the
United States and participating nations. Terrorism is a common enemy
that can be defeated using shared resources and expertise.
As new terrorist
threats develop, new countermeasures must be developed as well.
This explosive ordnance disposal suit, developed jointly by the
interagency Technical Support Working Group and the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, protects against hazardous chemical or biological agents
as well as blast effects.
SAFEGUARDING THE NUCLEAR MATERIALS
The United States and the international community face the increasingly
pressing challenge of managing the flow of nuclear materials from cradle
to grave. Building on our work in the handling and disposition of
nuclear weapon materials, both at home and with the states of the former
Soviet Union, we must address all sources of nuclear materials, from
power plants to dismantled nuclear weapons.
We are working
with Russia to shut down its reactors that continue to produce
weapons-grade plutonium so that they can be converted to a safer,
non-weapons grade configuration that still would generate electricity.
We also are buying highly enriched uranium from Russia that is blended
down for use in U.S. power reactors. At the same time, the
Administration discourages the civil use of plutonium and thus does not
reprocess spent nuclear fuel to recover plutonium.
to ensure that the management and disposal of nuclear material (weapons
grade and civilian waste) is addressed at all stages in a coordinated
manner. We seek to ensure that strict nonproliferation safeguards are
built into all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and that these
materials are kept under strict and responsible control.
To ensure safe
management of the complete nuclear fuel cycle, we are developing a
comprehensive, "cradle-to-grave" plan for management and disposal of
civilian and military nuclear waste that is consistent with our energy,
environment and nonproliferation objectives. This will better ensure
that the storage of civilian nuclear waste, from the moment it leaves
its reactors to its final placement in a permanent repository, fully
meets these objectives.
DEFUSING EXPLOSIVE THREATS TO SUSTAINABLE
Today, an estimated 80 to 110 million landmines remain in places that
were once sites of conflict, killing and maiming more than 25,000
individuals per year. In addition to their costs in terms of human
suffering, landmines obstruct economic development programs and keep
refugees from returning to their homelands. Entire regions are denied
basic services because repairs to infrastructure are impeded,
humanitarian aid shipments are disrupted, and societies are thrown into
chaos. The vast majority of these landmines remain active for decades,
leaving a deadly legacy of conflicts that have long since ceased.
the United Nations, only some 80,000 mines were extracted in 1993, while
an estimated 2.5 million more were laid. Mines that cost as little as $3
on the open market can cost up to $1,000 to clear. Therefore,
demining technologies and procedures are required.
In May 1996, the President announced an antipersonnel landmine policy
that sets out a concrete path to a global ban on antipersonnel landmines
and works to protect civilians in affected areas from those mines that
have already been laid. This policy directs the Department of Defense to
"undertake a substantial program to develop improved mine
detection and clearing technology and to share this improved technology
with the broader international community." DOD is also directed to
"significantly expand its humanitarian demining program to train and
assist other countries in developing effective demining programs."
Humanitarian Demining Program within the DOD is developing technologies
and building prototypes for a wide variety of approaches to mine
detection, neutralization, and removal, ranging from "weed-whackers"
with extra-long handles that can clear the vegetation above suspected
mines safely, to integrated, sensor-fused, thermal imaging sensors,
metal detectors, and ground-penetrating radars that can detect mines
directly or the disturbed soil conditions that indicate their presence.
This program works closely with demining efforts in the field, supplying
prototype equipment as soon as it is developed, and getting feedback
from users to develop further improvements. Items deployed include
specially trained mine-detecting dogs, tele-operated miniature flails,
computer-aided training modules, and worldwide mine databases. The
United States is deploying mine detectors, flails, and explosive foams
(used for destroying mines in place) to Bosnia-Herzegovina.
In addition, the first non-governmental purchase of equipment developed
under this program is being made by a relief organization for use in
SHORING UP SOUTH AFRICA'S
Under the leadership of Vice President Gore, the United States is
cooperating with South Africa in science and technology for mutual gain.
Through our science and technology relationship, we are helping the new
South Africa achieve its development goals of an adequate food supply,
access to basic health care for all, and a stronger science and
technology base. The United States is meeting its foreign policy
objectives of building a stronger, more stable, and prosperous South
Africa, which can serve as a foundation for democracy in the region.
Moreover, science and technology cooperation will allow U.S. scientists
to access important scientific data and will expand markets in South
Africa for U.S. technologies by promoting joint technology development and
creating a technologically literate South African workforce.
these goals, the U.S. government has set up joint programs in climate
research, biomedical research, teacher training, agricultural
technology, and basic sciences. The U.S. Department of Commerce's National
Institute for Standards and Technology has also initiated a
cooperative program in standards and metrology, which is critical to
opening South African markets to U.S. high-tech products. Another
example is the collaboration between the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Agency and the South African Weather Bureau to track
the climate phenomenon known as
El Nino. This collaboration has already enabled scientists to predict
drought up to a year in advance, allowing
farmers to plant crops that will survive dry conditions, thereby
assuring reliable food production and stable rural economies. Predicting
El Nino has important health implications, as well, because the heavy
rains associated with it can lead to outbreaks
of malaria. Finally, the training component of the joint program will
create a new generation of South African climatologists.
COMBATING EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC
On May 6, 1995, the U.S. Embassy in Zaire learned that Kikwit, an area
about 350 miles from Kinshasa, was suffering an outbreak of an unusual
hemorrhagic fever that had taken the lives of two Italian nuns. Several
days later, researchers at the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention's (CDC) bio-safety level-four laboratory in
Atlanta, Georgia, confirmed that the mysterious outbreak was caused by
the deadly Ebola virus. First recognized in 19 76 during parallel
outbreaks in the Sudan and Zaire, Ebola has no known treatment or cure.
Before the Kikwit outbreak had run its course, 249 people died, nearly
one quarter of them health care workers.
outbreak, like the few others documented, took off because of poor
sanitation, close contact between family care givers and the patients
that facilitated exchange of bodily fluids, and reuse in hospitals of
syringes and needles. At the invitation of the Zairian government, the
Organization (WHO), CDC, and other international relief agencies
sent personnel to Kikwit to work with Zairian doctors, and to help
contain the outbreak and trace its source. The U.S. Agency for International Development Office of
Foreign Disaster Assistance provided disposable protective clothing,
plasma, body bags, and essential medicines.
deadly disease at its earliest stages is critical to preventing
an epidemic. The United States is making worldwide infectious disease
detection and control a national priority. A scientist at the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention Maximum Containment Laboratory
processes human samples from an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in
The ability to
identify a disease at its earliest stages is critical to preventing an
epidemic. Only four highly secure facilities (one in France, one in
South Africa, and the U.S. high-containment laboratories at the CDC in
Atlanta, Georgia and at the U.S. Army Medical Research
Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Ft. Detrick,
Maryland), are equipped to identify the virus. This means that an
outbreak can fester for months before it is recognized, the probable
cause pinpointed, and samples are sent for testing and identification.
This was precisely the situation in Kikwit, where the first Ebola case
probably occurred as early as December 1994 but did not come to the
attention of the international community until five months later.
lack two essential pieces of knowledge: how to save the victims, and
where the virus resides, or continues to survive, between outbreaks. The
latter question in particular is a topic of concentrated effort as
researchers probe the jungles to collect and examine tens of thousands
of plants and animals. The underlying assumption is that an unknown
species serves as a reservoir for the virus. Once researchers understand
how the disease is transmitted between this reservoir host species and
humans, they can work to interrupt or eliminate transmission.
This view of an
Ebola virus cluster is from a negative stain electron
micrograph, computer-processed image.
At the same time, researchers report rapid progress in understanding the
course of the disease, and its molecular nature. In addition, a new skin
test developed by CDC scientists offers a safe way to send skin samples
from remote areas for identification in the high-security labs in the
United States, France, and South Africa. Researchers are also exploring
modes of transmission, including whether airborne droplets can spread
the infection, and are evaluating prospects for a vaccine. Scientists at
the Department of Defense have developed animal models of Ebola
infection for use in evaluating experimental therapies. National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases scientists are ass
isting them with the identification of experimental drugs to test.
challenge of diseases like Ebola requires a global strategy as most
cities are within a 36-hour commercial flight of each other - less than
the incubation period of many infectious diseases. In June 1996, Vice
President Gore announced a new
Presidential policy calling for a coordinated strategy of basic
research, training, public health programs, foreign
assistance, and security measures. Internationally, the United States
will work with multilateral organizations and other countries to improve
worldwide disease surveillance, reporting, and response, while
encouraging other countries to make infectious disease detection and
control national priorities. The ultimate goal of the strategy is to
create a worldwide surveillance and response network that will protect
the future health and well-being of the United States and the global
NATIONAL SECURITY AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS|
SELECTED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACCOMPLISHMENTS
A STRONGER DEFENSE
- Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program
- White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security
- National Ignition Facility
- Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative
- Dual-track tritium strategy
- Laser techniques for igniting energetic materials
- "Canary-on-a-chip" detector for chemical or toxin warfare agents
- DOD High Level Architecture for Modeling and Simulation
- Super-resolution technique for advanced synthetic aperture radar imagery
- Systems to locate snipers acoustically
ARMS CONTROL AND NONPROLIFERATION
- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
- Cooperative Threat Reduction Program
- Counterproliferation Initiative
- Materials Protection, Control and Accountability activities
- International Science and Technology Centers in Moscow and Kiev
- Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group
- Technologies to monitor and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
- Revolutionary terrain elevation mapping techniques
- Five-year science and technology agreement with Kazakstan
- Research to counter nuclear smuggling
- Remote detection of chemical effluents using laser technology
- Long-term storage and disposition plan for excess weapons-grade plutonium
- Demonstrations of surplus weapons plutonium disposition technologies with Russia
- Disposal of excess weapons highly enriched uranium
GLOBAL STABILITY AND PROSPERITY
- National and international strategy to address emerging infectious disease threats
Detection and response to cryptosporidiosis, hantavirus, Ebola virus,and pneumonic plague outbreaks
- S&T Initiatives under the Gore-Chernomyrdin (U.S.-Russia) Commission
U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation
Expanded cooperation in priority science and technology fields
- S&T Initiatives under the Gore-Mbeki (U.S.-South Africa) Commission
Prediction of the impact of El Ni-o on agricultural production and health
Launch of South African student-built microsatellite by NASA
- S&T Initiatives under the Gore-Mubarek (U.S.-Egypt) Commission
Remote sensing for more efficient water management Manufacturing extension
- S&T Initiatives under the Gore-Kuchma (U.S.-Ukraine) Commission
Policy level forum to promote expanded cooperation
- U.S.-Japan Common Agenda for Cooperation in a Global Perspective
Partnerships in Natural Disaster Reduction and Earth Observation
Civil Industrial Technology partnerships
- U.S.-China Cooperation in Science and Technology
Expanded cooperation in priority science and technology fields, particularly in topics related to sustainable development
- APEC Science and Technology Ministerial
Cleaner Production/Clean Technology Initiative
APEC Science and Technology Internet resources
- Summit of Americas Science and Technology Ministerial
Policy level forum to promote expanded cooperation in information technologies, capacity building, and sustainable development.
- OECD Megascience Forum
Expanded cooperation in neutron sources, bioinformatics, and nuclear physics
Facilitated international cooperation in large science projects.
TABLE OF CONTENTS | Chapter 4
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