| U.S. Department of State
United Kingdom, November 1995
Bureau of Public Affairs
AT A GLANCE
Official Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Area: 244,111 sq. km. (94,251 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than
Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. about 6.9 million).
Other cities--Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bradford,
Manchester, Edinburgh, Bristol, Belfast.
Terrain: 30% arable, 50% meadow
and pasture, 12% waste or urban, 7% forested, 1% inland water.
Generally mild and temperate; weather is subject to frequent changes but to few
extremes of temperature.
Nationality: Noun--Briton(s). Adjective--British.
Population: 58 million.
Annual growth rate: 0.2%.
British, West Indian, South Asian.
Religions: Church of England, Roman
Languages: English, Welsh, Gaelic.
Years compulsory--12. Attendance--nearly 100%. Literacy--99%
Health: Infant mortality--8/1,000. Life expectancy--males 73
yrs; females 79 yrs.
Work force (1994, 28 million): Services--72%.
Manufacturing and engineering--18%. Mining and energy--5%. Construction--4%.
Type: Constitutional monarchy.
partly statutes, partly common law and practice.
Executive--monarch (chief of state), prime minister (head of government),
cabinet. Legislative--bicameral parliament: House of Commons, House of Lords.
Judicial--magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts,
House of Lords.
Subdivisions: Municipalities, counties, parliamentary
constituencies, province of Northern Ireland, and Scottish regions.
Political parties: Conservative; Labour; Liberal Democrats; and various smaller
parties including the Greens and parties of Scotland, Wales, and Northern
Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of the Irish Republic
resident in the U.K., at 18.
GDP (1994): $1 trillion.
Annual growth rate (1994):
Per capita GDP (1994): $18,000.
Natural resources: Coal, oil, gas
Agriculture (1.8% of GDP): Products--cereals, livestock,
livestock products, fish.
Industry (33% of GDP): Types--steel, heavy
engineering and metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and aircraft,
construction, electronics, chemicals.
Trade (1994): Exports--$200 billion:
machinery and transport equipment, petroleum, manufactures, chemicals. Major
markets--EU, U.S., Sweden, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Switzerland, South Africa.
Imports--$215 billion: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures,
foodstuffs, petroleum, chemicals. Major suppliers--EU, U.S., Japan, Norway,
The United Kingdom does not have a written constitution. The
equivalent body of law is based on statute, common law, and "traditional
rights." Changes may come about formally through new acts of parliament,
informally through the acceptance of new practices and usage, or by judicial
precedents. Although parliament has the theoretical power to make or repeal any
law, in actual practice the weight of 700 years of tradition restrains
Executive government rests nominally with the monarch but
actually is exercised by a committee of ministers (cabinet) traditionally
selected from among the members of the House of Commons and, to a lesser
extent, the House of Lords. The prime minister is the leader of the majority
party in the Commons, and the government is dependent on its support.
Parliament represents the entire country and can legislate for
the whole or for any constituent part or combination of parts. The maximum
parliamentary term is five years, but the prime minister may ask the monarch to
dissolve parliament and call a general election at any time. The focus of
legislative power is the 650-member House of Commons, which has sole
jurisdiction over finance. The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its
powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those
relating to the budget. Only a few of the 1,200 members of the House of Lords
attend its sessions regularly. The House of Lords has more time than the House
of Commons to pursue one of its more important functions--debating public
The judiciary is independent of the legislative and executive
branches but cannot review the constitutionality of legislation.
The separate identity of each of the U.K.'s constituent parts
also is reflected in governmental structure. Welsh affairs are handled at the
national level by a cabinet minister (the Secretary of State for Wales) with
the advice of a broadly representative council for Wales. Scotland continues,
as before its union with England, to employ different systems of law
(Roman-French), education, local government, judiciary, and national church
(the Presbyterian Church of Scotland instead of the Church of England). In
addition, most domestic matters are handled by separate departments grouped
under a Secretary of State for Scotland, who also is a cabinet member.
Until suspended in March 1972, Northern Ireland--with the
British Government retaining ultimate responsibility--had its own parliament
and prime minister. Then, in response to deteriorating security and political
conditions in the province, direct rule from London was established through a
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is represented by 17
members in the House of Commons. The six counties of Northern Ireland comprise
about 900,000 Protestants and 650,000 Catholics.
On November 15, 1985, the United Kingdom and the Republic of
Ireland signed the Anglo-Irish agreement to diminish the divisions in Northern
Ireland and to achieve peace and stability. In the agreement, both governments
affirm that any change in Northern Ireland's status will come about only with
the consent of a majority of its people. An intergovernmental conference was
established to deal with political, security, legal, and cross-border
cooperation issues and provides for possible future devolution of
responsibility for some matters within Northern Ireland.
In December 1993, the U.K. and Irish Governments adopted a
joint declaration reiterating both governments' commitment that there would be
no change in Northern Ireland's constitutional status unless a majority of the
voters in the province so desired. All constitutional parties were invited to
take part in a negotiation aimed at achieving a political solution to the
conflict in the province. The U.K. and Irish Governments also cooperate in
promoting economic and social development in the unstable areas and are seeking
international support for this effort.
In February 1995, U.K. Prime Minister Major and Irish Prime
Minister Burton announced a Joint Framework Document (JFD) outlining their
governments' shared proposals for inclusive talks on Northern Ireland. The JFD
lays the foundation for "all-party talks" among the political parties of
Northern Ireland and the U.K. and Irish Governments. At the same time, the U.K.
Government separately announced a Framework for Accountable
Government--proposals for a new, devolved local assembly in Northern Ireland.
These proposals are intended to form the basis for negotiations between the
U.K. Government and Northern Ireland's political parties.
As of 1994, the United States has given or pledged
contributions totaling $248 mil-lion to the International Fund for Ireland. The
Fund provides grants and loans to businesses to improve the economy, redress
inequalities of employment opportunity, and improve cross-border business and
Principal Government Officials
Head of State--Queen Elizabeth II
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs--Malcolm
Ambassador to the U.S.--Sir John Kerr
Ambassador to the UN--Sir
The United Kingdom maintains an embassy in the United States at
3100 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-462-1340; fax 202-
The United Kingdom is one of the United States' closest allies,
and British foreign policy emphasizes close coordination with the United
States. Bilateral cooperation reflects the common language, ideals, and
democratic practices of the two nations. The relations were strengthened by the
U.K.'s alliance with the United States during both World Wars, the Korean
conflict, and the Persian Gulf war. The United Kingdom and the United States
continually consult on foreign policy issues and global problems and share
major foreign and security policy objectives. In the United Nations, the U.K.
is a permanent member of the Security Council. As of May 1995, some 3,500
British soldiers were serving with UNPROFOR in Bosnia; additional
reinforcements were sent in June.
The U.K. has historic global ties, but as its global
commitments have been reduced since World War II, it has sought a closer
association with Europe. A key member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), the U.K. is one of its major European maritime powers. The U.K. ranks
fourth among NATO countries in total defense expenditure.
The 56,000-member Royal Navy is in charge of NATO's independent
strategic nuclear arm--Polaris missile submarines now being replaced by Trident
II. Defense of U.S. reinforcement and resupply of Europe is one of the Royal
Navy's major tasks. In addition, the 7,600-member Royal Marines provide
commando units for amphibious assault and for specialist reinforcement forces
in and beyond the NATO area. The army, with a strength of 123,500, including
7,600 women, provides for the ground defense of the United Kingdom through its
participation in NATO.
Trade and Investment
The United Kingdom is one of the largest European economies and
one of the world's major trading powers. London ranks with New York as a
leading international financial center.
After Canada, Japan, and Mexico, the United Kingdom is the
fourth- largest U.S. export market. In 1994, it purchased American goods valued
at $26.8 billion and accounted for about 25% of all U.S. trade with the
European Union. The U.K. is also the largest source of foreign tourists to the
United States; an estimated 3 million British tourists visited the U.S. in
1994--and 3.1 million are expected for 1995--accounting for more than $8
billion in travel receipts.
The U.K. is America's most important investment partner. For
1993, two- way direct investment was more than $190 billion. The U.K. was
America's largest destination for investment abroad; valued at $96 billion,
U.S. investment accounted for 18% of total investment in the U.K. In addition,
21% of foreign direct investment in the U.S. came from the U.K., which at $95
billion was second only to Japan.
British industry is a mixture of publicly and privately owned
firms. Several important industries are publicly owned, including steel,
railroads, coal mining, shipbuilding, and certain utilities. Since 1979, the
British Government has privatized most large state-owned companies, including
British Steel, British Airways, British Telecom, British Coal, British
Aerospace, and British Gas.
The United Kingdom is an energy-rich nation with significant
reserves of oil and gas in the North Sea and large coal resources. Energy
production accounts for almost 5% of GDP. North Sea oil production, currently
over 2.4 million b/d, is on an upward trend expected to continue into 1996.
U.K. offshore areas should be an important source of continued production and
new discoveries for some years. U.S. oil and oil-service companies participate
actively in the North Sea oil industry and consider the United Kingdom an
attractive environment for future investment.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--William J. Crowe Jr.
Minister (Deputy Chief of
Mission)--Timothy E. Deal
Minister for Economic Affairs--Thomas H.
Minister-Counselor for Political Affairs--Michael Habib
Minister-Counselor for Commercial Affairs--Kenneth Moorefield
The U.S. embassy in the United Kingdom is located at 24/31
Grosvenor Sq., W.1A 1AE, London (tel.  (171) 499-9000; fax  (171) 409-