"The progress is unmistakable. But it is not yet irreversible. [Bosnia].... remains poised on a tightrope, moving toward a better future, but not at the point yet of a self-sustaining peace. To get there, the people of Bosnia still need a safety net and a helping hand that only the international community, including the United States, can provide."

President Clinton
Washington, D.C.
December 18, 1997

President Clinton's leadership in negotiating the Dayton Peace Accords for Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995 ended a brutal conflict that had devastated the region, resulted in the ethnic cleansing of hundreds of thousands of people and sowed the seeds of mutual distrust among Bosnia's three warring ethnic groups. By almost any measure, the Dayton Accords have been a success: the peace has been sustained, a civil society complete with active opposition parties and non-governmental organizations is taking root, police and court systems are in the process of reform and national and local elections have taken place throughout the country. While ultimate responsibility for peace and reconciliation lies with Bosnia's people and leaders, U.S. and international involvement remains critical to ensure that the remaining tasks - promoting economic recovery, encouraging further minority returns and apprehending war criminals still at large - are successfully completed.


Ending War in Bosnia

Returning Refugees

Promoting Stability

Supporting Economic Recovery

Prosecuting War Crimes

Establishing Joint Institutions

Holding Elections and Fostering Democratization

Resolving Conflict

Supporting Police and Judicial Reform

Promoting Independent Media


November 2000 Pro-European, pro-Dayton political parties make significant gains in national elections.
October 2000 Recognizing the historic democratic transition underway in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), the Stability Pact decides to formally admit the FRY as a member. The FRY also gains membership in the United Nations, the IMF and the OSCE and moves quickly to establish diplomatic relations with its neighbors, including Bosnia.
Sept. -Oct. 2000

Following presidential elections, Slobodan Milosevic is toppled from power and a democratic government around opposition leader Vojislav Kostunica is formed. Kostunica travels to Sarajevo and voices support for Dayton Accords.

August 2000 Constitutional Court issues landmark decision ruling that portions of the Republika Sprska and Federation Constitutions that discriminate on the basis of ethnicity are unconstitutional.
June 2000 Member of the Presidency Alija Izetbegovic announces he will retire from office.
June 2000 New Council of Ministers constituted under guidelines established by the Constitutional Court. Three new ministries created.
May 2000 General elections are scheduled for November.
May 2000 SFOR, under the "Enhanced Agility" model, completes force reductions to approximately 20,000. U.S. participation is reduced to under 4,600.
April 2000 Successful municipal elections are held throughout Bosnia.
March 2000 The Office of the High Representative concludes the formation of the Brcko district - the last unresolved issue from the Dayton accords - and announces an inter-ethnic government for the new district.
November 1999 Ambassador Holbrooke wins the agreement of Bosnia's Joint Presidency to implement further aspects of the Dayton Accords, including the establishment of a State Border Service.
September 1999 Secretary Albright hosts the Steering Board in New York, endorsing the concept of "Bosnian ownership" of the Peace Process.
July 1999 The United States, along with the European Union and with support from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, sponsors the Sarajevo Summit to launch the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe, a process designed to strengthen democracy, economic development and security throughout the entire region.
December 1998 Deputy Secretary of State Talbott represents the United States at Madrid Ministerial, where further benchmarks and timelines are established for Dayton implementation.
December 1997 Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott attends the Bonn Ministerial for the Peace Implementation Council. New, sweeping powers are appointed to the High Representative (responsible for civilian implementation in Bosnia) to make binding interim decisions on issues where the parties fail to reach agreement - thus eliminating the ability of any single party to block progress.
December 1997 President Clinton visits Sarajevo, delivering a message of reconciliation and assuring Bosnia's citizens of the U.S. commitment to ensure peace and stability in their country.
September 1997 Indicted war criminal Radovan Karadzic goes into hiding in response to SFOR efforts to arrest him.
December 1996 The United Nations Security Council, with strong U.S. support, votes to establish a follow-on stabilization force for Bosnia, SFOR.
September 1996 With strong U.S. logistical, financial and personnel support, democratic elections are successfully held at the national, entity and cantonal levels.
August 1996 First shipment of equipment arrives in Bosnia as part of a U.S.-led international effort to train and equip Federation forces in order to establish a self-defense capability.
December 1995 The United States, together with its NATO allies and Russia, approve the deployment of a NATO-led multinational Implementation Force. By mid-February, NATO and forces from 18 other countries had deployed over 60,000 troops to Bosnia.
November 1995 Following a cease-fire, the United States, along with its Contact Group partners, successfully brokers a comprehensive peace agreement after three weeks of negotiations in Dayton, Ohio.
August 1995 Following Bosnian-Serb shelling of a Sarajevo marketplace and other assaults on UN-declared safe havens, U.S. leadership is instrumental in forging NATO agreement to intervene actively in order to halt the violence. Meanwhile, on the diplomatic front, President Clinton's negotiating team, directed by then Secretary of State Warren Christopher and led by Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, embark on exhaustive shuttle diplomacy throughout the region and Europe.


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