Appendix: Methodology & Endnotes
Methodology. The Actuarial Research Corporation under
contract with the Department of Health and Human Services conducted most of the
analysis. The basis for the estimates is the Medicare Current Beneficiary
Survey (MCBS) for 1995. These data were aged to CY 2000, converted to a
point-in-time estimate, and adjusted for the increase in managed care
enrollment. This enrollment increase was estimated by moving beneficiaries from
retiree health coverage, Medigap and the uninsured to managed care in
proportion to their enrollment in those plans.
1 Hazzard WR; Blass JP (Editor); Ettinger WH; Halter
JB; Ouslander JG. (1998). Principles of Geriatric Medicine and
Gerontology. New York: McGraw Hill.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health
Statistics. (1993). (National High Blood Pressure Education Working Group):
Report on primary prevention of hypertension. Archives of Internal
Medicine. 153: 186.
3 Wilson PWF. (1991).
Established risk factors and coronary artery disease: The Framingham Study.
American Journal of Hypertension. 7: 75.
Cooperative Research Group. (1991). Prevention of stroke by hypertensive
treatment in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. JAMA,
5 Randomized trial of
cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: The
Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (45). Lancet 1994; 344: 1388-1389.
6 The beta-blocker heart attack trial: Beta-Blocker
Heart Attack Study Group. JAMA. 1981; 246: 2073-2074.
7 National Health Interview Survey.
8 Tierney LM; McPhee SJ; Papadakis MA (editors).
(1998). Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 1998. Appleton and
9 Tierney LM, et al.; ibid.
10 Soumerai SB; Ross-Degnan D; Avorn J; McLaughlin
TJ; Choodnovskiy I. (1987). Payment restrictions for prescription drugs under
Medicaid: Effects on therapy, cost and equity. The New England Journal of
Medicine, 317: 550-556.
11 Families USA,
12 Soumerai SB; Ross-Degnan D; Avorn J;
McLaughlin TJ; Choodnovskiy I. (1991). Effects of Medicaid drug-payment limits
on admissions to hospitals and nursing homes. The New England Journal of
Medicine, 325: 1072-1077.
13 Bero LA.;
Lipton HL; Bird, JA.. (1991). Characterization of Geriatric Drug-Related
Hospital Readmissions. Medical Care, 29 (10): 989-1003.
14 Foster Higgins, National Survey of
Employer-Sponsored Health Plans, 1998.
Foster Higgins, National Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Plans, 1996. As
reported in Hewitt Associates. (1997). Retiree Health Trends and Implications
of Possible Medicare Reforms. Washington, DC: The Kaiser Medicaid Project.
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