Using technology to support instruction improved student outcomes in
language arts, math, social studies, and science, according to a 1995 review
of more than 130 recent academic studies.
[Bailo, Ellen R., and Jay Sivin-Kachla. 1995. Effectiveness of
Technology in Schools. 1990-1994. Washington, DC: Software Publishers
A review of computer-based instruction in military training found
that students reached similar levels of achievement in 30 percent less time
than needed to achieve the same level of competency using more standard
approaches to training.
[Orlansky, J., and J. String. 1979. Cost-Effectiveness of Conmuter Based
Instruction in Military Training. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense
A congressionally mandated review of 47 comparisons of multimedia
instruction with more conventional approaches to instructionfound
time savings of 30 percent, improved achievement and cost savings of 30 to 40
percent, and a direct positive link between the amount of interactivity provided
and instructional effectiveness.
[Fletcher, J.D. 1991. "Effectiveness and Cost of Interactive Videodisc
Instruction," Machine Mediated Learning, 3, pp. 361-385.]
A review of New York City's Computer Pilot Program, which focused
on remedial and low-achieving students, showed gains of 80 percent for
reading and 90 percent for math when computers were used to assist in the
[Guerrero, J.F., M. Mitrani, J. Schoener, and Swan. Summer 1990. "Honing
the Target: Who Among the Educationally Disadvantaged Benefits Most from
What CBI?" Journal of Research on Computing in Education,
A comparison of peer tutoring, adult tutoring, reducing class size,
increasing the length of the school day, and computer-based instruction
found computer-based instruction to be the least expensive instructional
approach for raising mathematics scores by a given amount.
[Fletcher, J.F., D.E. Hawley, and P.K. Piele. 1990. "Costs, Effects,
and Utility of Microcomputer Assisted Instruction in the Classroom." American
Educational Research Journal, 27, pp. 783-806.]
A 1993 survey of studies of the effectiveness of technology found
that "courses for which computer-based networks were used increased
student-student and student-teacher interaction, increased student-teacher
interaction with lower-performing students, and did not decrease the
traditional forms of communications used.
[Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools 1990-1992,"
conducted by Interactive Systems Design and commissioned by the Software
Publishers Association. 1993, p.2.]
Research on the costs of instruction delivered via distance
learning, videotape, teleconferencing, and computer software indicates that savings
are often achieved with no loss of effectiveness. Distance learning vastly
broadens the learning environment, often providing teaching resources simply not
[National Council on Disability. Study on the Financing of Assistive
Technology Devicces and Services for Individuals with Disabilities.
March 4, 1993.]
A landmark study on the use of technology for children with
disabilities showed that "almost three-quarters of school-age children
were able to remain in a classroom, and 45 percent were able to reduce
school-related services" when computer-assisted learning techniques
[U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information
Administration, June 1995.]